Signs and Symptoms of Diarrhea

Signs and Symptoms of Diarrhea - Diarrhea is a troublesome discomfort that affects most individuals in the United States at some point in their lives and can be thought of as both a symptom and a sign. Usually diarrheal episodes begin abruptly and subside within 1 or 2 days without treatment. Acute diarrhea is commonly defined as <14 days’ duration, persistent diarrhea as more than 14 days’ duration, and chronic diarrhea as more than 30 days’ duration.

To understand diarrhea, one must have a reasonable definition of the condition; unfortunately, the literature is extremely variable on this. Simply put, diarrhea is an increased frequency and decreased consistency of fecal discharge as compared to an individual’s normal bowel pattern. Frequency and consistency are variable within and between individuals. For example, some individuals defecate as often as three times per day, whereas others defecate only two or three times per week. 

A Western diet usually produces a daily stool weighing between 100 and 300 g, depending on the amount of nonabsorbable materials (mainly carbohydrates) consumed. Patients with serious diarrhea may have a daily stool weight in excess of 300 g; however, a subset of patients experience frequent small, watery passages. Additionally, vegetable fiber-rich diets, such as those consumed in some Eastern cultures, such as those in Africa, produce stools weighing more than 300 g/day.

Diarrhea may be associated with a specific disease of the intestines or secondary to a disease outside the intestines. For instance, bacillary dysentery directly affects the gut, whereas diabetes mellitus causes neuropathic diarrheal episodes. Furthermore, diarrhea can be considered as acute or chronic disease. Infectious diarrhea is often acute; diabetic diarrhea is chronic. Congenital disorders in gastrointestinal ion-transport mechanisms are another cause of chronic diarrhea. Whether acute or chronic, diarrhea has the same pathophysiologic causes that help identification of specific treatments.

Physiology

In the fasting state, 9 L of fluid enters the proximal small intestine each day. Of this fluid, 2 L are ingested through diet, while the remainder consists of internal secretions. Because of meal content, duodenal chyme is usually hypertonic. When chyme reaches the ileum, the osmolality adjusts to that of plasma, with most dietary fat, carbohydrate, and protein being absorbed. The volume of ileal chyme decreases to about 1 L/day upon entering the colon, which is further reduced by colonic absorption to 100 mL daily. If the small intestine water absorption capacity is exceeded, chyme overloads the colon, resulting in diarrhea. In humans, the colon absorptive capacity is about 5 L daily.

Colonic fluid transport is critical to water and electrolyte balance. Absorption from the intestines back into the blood occurs by three mechanisms: active transport, diffusion, and solvent drag. Active transport and diffusion are the mechanisms of sodium transport. Because of the high luminal sodium concentration (142 mEq/L), sodium diffuses from the sodium-rich gut into epithelial cells, where it is actively pumped into the blood and exchanged with chloride to maintain an isoelectric condition across the epithelial membrane. Hydrogen ions are transported by an indirect mechanism in the upper small intestine. As sodium is absorbed, hydrogen ions are secreted into the gut. 

Hydrogen ions then combine with bicarbonate ions to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates into carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide readily diffuses into the blood for expiration through the lung. The water remains in the chyme. Paracellular pathways are major routes of ion movement. As ions, monosaccharides, and amino acids are actively transported, an osmotic pressure is created, drawing water and electrolytes across the intestinal wall. This pathway accounts for significant amounts of ion transport, especially sodium. Sodium plays an important role in stimulating glucose absorption. Glucose and amino acids are actively transported into the blood via a sodium dependent cotransport mechanism. Cotransport absorption mechanisms of glucose-sodium and amino acid-sodium are extremely important for treating diarrhea.

Gut motility influences absorption and secretion. The amount of time in which luminal content is in contact with the epithelium is under neural and hormonal control. Neurohormonal substances, such as angiotensin, vasopressin, glucocorticoid, aldosterone, and neurotransmitters also regulate ion transport.

Clinical Presentation of Diarrhea

A medication history is extremely important in identifying drug-induced diarrhea. Many agents, including antibiotics and other drugs, cause diarrhea or, less commonly, pseudomembranous colitis. Self-inflicted laxative abuse for weight loss is popular. Most acute diarrhea is self-limiting, subsiding within 72 hours. However, infants, young children, the elderly, and debilitated persons are at risk for morbid and mortal events in prolonged or voluminous diarrhea. These groups are at risk for water, electrolyte, and acid–base disturbances, and potentially cardiovascular collapse and death. The prognosis for chronic diarrhea depends on the cause; for example, diarrhea secondary to diabetes mellitus waxes and wanes throughout life.

General
• Usually, acute diarrheal episodes subside within 72 hours of onset, whereas chronic diarrhea involves frequent attacks over extended time periods.
Signs and symptoms
• Abrupt onset of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, fever, chills, and malaise.
• Bowel movements are frequent and never bloody, and diarrhea lasts 12 to 60 hours.
• Intermittent periumbilical or lower right quadrant pain with cramps and audible bowel sounds is characteristic of small intestinal disease.
• When pain is present in large intestinal diarrhea, it is a gripping, aching sensation with tenesmus (straining, ineffective, and painful stooling). Pain localizes to the hypogastric region, right or left lower quadrant, or sacral region.
• In chronic diarrhea, a history of previous bouts, weight loss, anorexia, and chronic weakness are important findings.
Physical examination
• Typically demonstrates hyperperistalsis with borborygmi and generalized or local tenderness.
Laboratory tests
• Stool analysis studies include examination for microorganisms, blood, mucus, fat, osmolality, pH, electrolyte and mineral concentration, and cultures.
• Stool test kits are useful for detecting gastrointestinal viruses, particularly rotavirus.
• Antibody serologic testing shows rising titers over a 3- to 6-day period, but this test is not practical and is nonspecific.
• Occasionally, total daily stool volume is also determined.
• Direct endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the colon may be undertaken to assess for the presence of conditions such as colitis or cancer.
• Radiographic studies are helpful in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions.

Drugs Causing Diarrhea

Laxatives
Antacids containing magnesium
Antineoplastics
Auranofin (gold salt)
Antibiotics
Clindamycin
Tetracyclines
Sulfonamides
Any broad-spectrum antibiotic
Antihypertensives
Reserpine
Guanethidine
Methyldopa
Guanabenz
Guanadrel
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
Cholinergics
Bethanechol
Neostigmine
Cardiac agents
Quinidine
Digitalis
Digoxin
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
Misoprostol
Colchicine
Proton pump inhibitors
H2-receptor blockers

Salam

by Umaee
Source: Pharmacotherapy 7th
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1 comments:

Muhammad Amir said...

The information in this database is intended as a supplement to,green diarrhea in babies

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