Treatment of Diarrhea

Treatment of Diarrhea - To explain "i have diarrhea" you must know diarrhea overall. Prevention ; Acute viral diarrheal illness often occurs in daycare centers and nursing homes. As person-to-person contact is the mechanism by which viral disease spreads, isolation techniques must be initiated, For bacterial, parasite, and protozoal infections, strict food handling, sanitation, water, and other environmental hygiene practices can prevent transmission. If diarrhea is secondary to another illness, controlling the primary condition is necessary. Antibiotics and bismuth subsalicylate are advocated to prevent traveler’s diarrhea, in conjunction with treatment of drinking water and caution with consumption of fresh vegetables.

Desired Outcome

If prevention is unsuccessful and diarrhea occurs, therapeutic goals are to (a) manage the diet; (b) prevent excessive water, electrolyte, and acid–base disturbances; (c) provide symptomatic relief; (d) treat curable causes; and (e) manage secondary disorders causing diarrhea (Figs. 38–1 and 38–2). Clinicians must clearly understand that diarrhea, like a cough, may be a body defense mechanism for ridding itself of harmful substances or pathogens. The correct therapeutic response is not necessarily to stop diarrhea at all costs.

 Nonpharmacologic Management

Dietary management is a first priority in the treatment of diarrhea. Most clinicians recommend discontinuing consumption of solid foods and dairy products for 24 hours. However, fasting is of questionable value, as this treatment modality has not been extensively studied. In osmotic diarrhea, these maneuvers control the problem. If the mechanism is secretory, diarrhea persists. For patients who are experiencing nausea and/or vomiting, a mild, digestible, low-residue diet should be administered for 24 hours. If vomiting is present and uncontrollable with antiemetics, nothing is taken by mouth. As bowel movements decrease, a bland diet is begun. 

Feeding should continue in children with acute bacterial diarrhea. Fed children have less morbidity and mortality, whether or not they receive oral rehydration fluids. Studies are not available in the elderly or in other high-risk groups to determine the value of continued feeding in bacterial diarrhea.

Water and Electrolytes

Rehydration and maintenance of water and electrolytes are primary treatment goals until the diarrheal episode ends. If the patient is volume depleted, rehydration should be directed at replacing water and electrolytes to normal body composition. Then water and electrolyte composition are maintained by replacing losses. Many patients will not develop volume depletion and therefore will only require maintenance fluid and electrolyte therapy. 

Parenteral and enteral routes may be used for supplying water and electrolytes. If vomiting and dehydration are not severe, enteral feeding is the less costly and preferred method. In the United States, many commercial oral rehydration preparations are available (Table 38–3). Because of concerns about hypernatremia, physicians continue to hospitalize patients and intravenously correct fluid and electrolyte deficits in severe dehydration. Oral solutions are strongly recommended. In developing countries, the World Health Organization Oral Rehydration Solution (WHO-ORS) saves the lives of millions of children annually.

During diarrhea, the small intestine retains its ability to actively transport monosaccharides such as glucose. Glucose actively carries sodium with water and other electrolytes. Because the WHO-ORS has a high sodium concentration, physicians have been reluctant to use it in well-nourished children. Yet controlled comparative studies describe more favorable results with the WHO-ORS than with parenteral fluids. The recommended WHO-ORS (see Table 38–3) has now been reformulated to have a lower osmolarity, sodium content, and glucose load. Rice-based oral solution is also a hyposmotically active substrate that elutes glucose without increasing stool or urine outflows. Rehydration of infants with acute diarrhea using a rice-based solution is effective.9 Decreased stool output and greater absorption and retention of fluid and electrolytes also results. 

In summary, oral rehydration solution is a lifesaving treatment for millions afflicted in developing countries. Acceptance in developed countries is less enthusiastic; however, the advantage of this product in reducing hospitalizations may prove its use as a cost-effective.


by Umaee

Source: pharmacotherapy 7th 
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lumin smith said...

Responsible cat Diarrhea Treatment is the set of steps that we need to take as loving cat owners to stop our kitty's upset stomach in the best possible way.

lumin smith said...

Diarrhea is a condition in which patients pass loose watery stools more than three times a day. In acute cases, stools may be extremely watery and may contain mucus. Diarrhea Treatment

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